Stem cells are the main source of all cells in our body and have the capacity to divide and renew themselves. They can therefore help damaged tissue to reproduce and regain its former function. However, stem cell treatments require a multidisciplinary approach including the indication-specific clinical sciences as well as cell biology, embryology, tissue engineering, molecular biology and genetic sciences.
The currently preferred stem cell sources for skin rejuvenation are mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the skin and fat tissue. Fat tissue has a relatively abundant number of stem cells but the need for surgery and the high and rapid rate of melting has decreased the demand for fat tissue. New sources of stem cell have therefore been investigated and the interest in the skin has gradually increased.
The stem cell model primarily used for skin rejuvenation and the correction of skin defects is based on fibroblasts obtained from the skin.
Fibroblasts are the main functional cells of the skin. They are responsible for the synthesis of collagen and glycosaminoglycan providing the structural integrity of the skin. Besides, they play a major role in wound healing. Stem cell treatment has therefore been used for skin rejuvenation and the correction of skin defects since 1995.